Basic computing terms part 2

Read previous part of this article in following link(Basic computing terms part 1) before reading this article.

Handshake: It is the process of transmitting information between two devices in order to make connection between two devices. Information transmitted before connection are request to make connection and Acknowledgement to make connection.

Host: It is the device connected to the network while server controls and monitors the network.

Identity theft: It is the illegal way of stealing someone else identity by the use of Information and technology. When you hack your friend’s Facebook password, it is called  identity theft.

Internet: It is the network of networks. It is the biggest network in the world. It uses HTTP and IP protocol. (For more information, please refer Internet and network basics).

Intranet: It is the network of computers in a particular organisation. Intranet is established in order to facilitate transmission of information within the organisation.

Mail: It is the electronic message which can be sent to any computer that is connected to the internet instantly.

Microprocessor: It is the combination of millions of integrated chips. It is integral part of the computer as it processes the data. With the advent of VLSI technology, semiconductor devices are becoming more and more smaller in size.

Modem: It is an acronym of Modulator and demodulator. As the name implies, it modulates the outgoing data and demodulates the incoming data.  Modulation is the process of converting digital signal into analog signal and demodulation does the reverse process.(For more information on digital and audio signal, please refer Internet and network basics).

Multimedia: It is a representation of a digital information in a attractive way such as video, audio, image , graphics ,animation, etc.

Neural networks or Artificial Neural Network(ANN):Neural networks are sophisticated learning algorithms which are inspired from the biological neural system. They are used in pattern recognition, computer vision and facial recognition. ANN uses parallel processing.  ANN will be extremely useful in realizing artificial intelligence.

Open source software: It is freely available software and usually its source code is also available to all people. Sometimes , creator may allow anyone to edit source code redistribute it for any reason.

Operating system: It is the vital program that coordinates system’s hardware and software. It controls all other programs installed in the system(For more info, refer Basics of computing)

Parallel processing: It is the simultaneous use of more the one processors to solve a complex problem. Processes such as data mining, big data analysis, remote sensing needs lot of processors and hence parallel processing is used for above applications. Following picture shows a picture of a super computer named Blue genie which uses parallel processing.

1024px-IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer

Image credits: Argonne National Lab License: CC-2.0

Pixel: It is the smallest unit of the picture. Quality of the picture is represented by its resolution. Resolution is nothing but the matrix of pixels.

Program: It is the set of instructions that is intended to do a specif task on its execution.

Peer to peer network(P2P): It is a network in which all hosts have equal preference and permission and they usually share the same work. Following image illustrates P2P network. Image credits:

1000px-P2P-network.svg

Protocol or Standards: It is the set of rules to be followed by a device while doing specific task.

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