Basic computing terms part 1

Algorithm: Algorithm is predefined set of instructions that has to be followed in order to solve a computer problem.

Authentication: It is the process of verifying the person’s identity.

Bandwidth: It is the measure of system’s capacity of carrying information over a specified time. Example Bandwidth of RJ-45 cable( RJ-45 is used in LAN) is 100Mbps.

BAR CODE:Barcode is series of parallel lines. Specific information can  be stored in a bacode by varying the distance between two lines, height  and width of the line and this information is decoded by barcode reader.

Binary number: Computer can understand only binary numbers and they are 0 and 1.

Biometric technology: It is the use of biological characteristics of human such as finger print, retina, iris and voice for the purpose of authentication.

Blue ray disc: This optical disc can store high definition movies. Their storage capacity varies from 25 GB to 128 GB while traditional CD’s storage capacity is 4.7 GB.

Cache: Frequently used data are stored in cache in order to enable a faster access by reducing the access time.

Clock rate:  It is the measure of speed of computer’s CPU.  1 hertz represents 1 cycle of input or output.  Modern computer’s clock rate is in the order of Megahertz and Gigahertz.

Computer simulation: The use of computers to simulate a real life event or process is called computer simulation. Computer simulators are used to train people in the field of aviation, defense and so on.

Cookies: Cookies are data stored in the web browser by a website while accessing the data. Some of the cookies are tracked by the advertisers to display preferential advertisement and some other are used by websites for session maintenance.

Cyber crime: It is the use of information and technology to commit crime. Cyber crimes that are liable to punishment under Indian law are hacking, identity theft, Impersonation ,etc

Data mining: It is the process of analyzing enormous amount of data to identify a particular pattern. Data mining is used extensively for targeted advertisement.

Debugging: It is the process of finding and rectifying errors or bugs in the program.

Digital signature: It is used to verify authenticity and integrity of a file and digital message. Digital signature ensures that a particular message or file is created by particular user and it is not edited in the transit.

Download: It is the transfer of file from the web server or from another computer in the network to the user computer.

Ethernet: It is the basic network technology that is used in the LAN and MAN networks.

Firewall: It is the network security system that regulates incoming and outgoing communication of the device or network. They include physical and non physical method to prevent unauthorized access to the device or network.An illustration of firewall is given below. (Image credits: Bruno Pedroza. Copyrights: CC-3.0

Firewall

Firmware: Basic programs that control the electronic devices are called firmware.

Fuzzy logic: It is the next generation logic system that is aimed to enhance the logic used in the traditional computers. Computers logic understands only two state: True and False. False state is represented by 0 and true is represented by 1 while the fuzzy logic will define all the values that ranges from 0 to 1.

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