1.Nature of constitution of India: Indian constitution is a written constitution. It is mix of rigidity and flexible. It is not too lean or too firm. It offers single citizenship, uniform and integrated Judiciary, parliamentary form of government and three independent forms of governance: Judiciary executive and legislative. It allows everyone to vote which is called as universal adult franchise. It is the lengthiest constitution while U.s constitution is the shortest constitution in the world.
2. Preamble : Just like a preface of a book, Preamble is a preface of the constitution. It was modified only once in 1976 by 42nd Constitutional amendment act to add three words : socialist, secular and integrity. In a landmark case popularly known as Kesavanadha Bharathi case ,Supreme court opined that constitution can not be amended in way that destroys its basic structure as specified in the preamble.
3.Union,state and territory :Article 1 states india or bharat as union of states.Parliament can create new state from existing states or consolidate two states or change the boundary of any state by using article 3 of the Indian constitution. Recently using this article ,Teluganna is formed.
4.Fundamental rights: Refer 9th civics book. just know the article number for each right. I hope to write a post on this.
5.Fundamental Duties: Fundamental Duties was not present in the ordinal constitution but later added by 42nd Constitutional amendment act of 1976 on the recommendations of Swaraj singh Committee.
6.Powers of president,Governor,CJI,CAG,AGI,CEC,CIC,PM and CM ,who appoints who,their method of appointment , resignation and removal (Its a very big topic but most of them covered in 9th civics book)
7.CVC is formed based on recommendation of Santhanam committee.
8.Local Governance is recommended by four committees: B.R.Mehta committee(1957), Ashok Mehta committee(1977),G.V.K Rao committee(1985) and L.M.Sighvi committee(1986). Local governance is finally constituted by 73rd Constitutional amendment act of 1992 in rural area and 74th Constitutional amendment act of 1992 in urban area.
9.Emergency provisions: Article 252 deals with national emergency. National emergency can be declared on the grounds of external war or internal rebellion. Article 356 deals with state emergency or president rule. State emergency can be declared by the president if any state acts in contrary to the provisions of the constitution.
8.Refer Current affairs(polity) in this link .